La STC 130/2013, de 4 de junio, y la “reanimación” del principio de supletoriedad en el ámbito de la ejecución del Derecho de la Unión Europea

Madrid, Palazzo di Cibele

De acuerdo con la doctrina establecida por el Tribunal Constitucional en la STC 61/1997, de 20 de marzo, en las materias en las que el Estado ostenta competencias compartidas (lo que supone que el Estado tiene reservadas las bases o la legislación básica y las Comunidades Autónomas tienen atribuida la competencia de desarrollo de esas bases) no puede éste, excediendo el tenor de los títulos que se las atribuye y penetrando en el ámbito reservado por la Constitución y los Estatutos a las Comunidades Autónomas, producir normas jurídicas meramente supletorias, pues tales normas, al invocar el amparo de una cláusula como la supletoriedad que, por no ser título competencial, no puede dárselo, constituyen una vulneración del orden constitucional de competencias. [FJ 12]

La STC 130/2013, de 4 de junio del Tribunal Constitucional ha venido a matizar el pronunciamiento general anterior al reconocer  una excepción al mismo: en el ámbito de la ejecución de la Unión Europea si cabe que el Estado produzca normas de carácter meramente supletorio[1].

La STC 130/2013, niega que ello sea una novedad, pues se fundamenta en lo establecido en la STC 79/1992, de 28 de mayo, FJ 3 donde el Tribunal consideró que las disposiciones del Estado que establezcan reglas destinadas a permitir la ejecución de las normas europeas en España y que no puedan considerarse normas básicas o de coordinación, tienen un carácter supletorio de las que pueden dictar las Comunidades Autónomas para los mismos fines en el ámbito de sus competencias.

Para el Tribunal, la cláusula de supletoriedad del art. 149.3 C.E. no constituye una cláusula universal atributiva de competencias, pero en tales casos de ejecución de las normas europeas en España la posibilidad de que el Estado dicte normas innovadoras de carácter supletorio está plenamente justificada por fundamentalmente dos razones. La primera, porque en ambos supuestos –tanto en el caso de la STC 79/1992, de 28 de mayo, como en el caso de la STC 130/2013- existen competencias estatales concurrentes de ordenación general del sector en todo el territorio nacional ex artículo 149.1.13 CE, que reserva al Estado la regulación sobre las bases y coordinación de la planificación general de la actividad económica, lo que legitima esa intervención normativa estatal, al menos con alcance supletorio.

La segunda, porque, a falta de la consiguiente actividad legislativa o reglamentaria de las Comunidades Autónomas, esa normativa estatal supletoria puede ser necesaria para garantizar el cumplimiento del Derecho derivado europeo, función que corresponde a las Cortes Generales o al Gobierno, según los casos (art. 93 C.E., conforme al que ha de interpretarse también al alcance de la cláusula de supletoriedad del art. 149.3 C.E.).

De acuerdo con la doctrina establecida en la STC 130/2013, las normas estatales dictadas con alcance supletorio, no impedirían el ejercicio de la competencia autonómica.

El Tribunal Constitucional no ha entrado a establecer condiciones adicionales para que el Estado pueda adoptar tales normas supletorias, lo que hace que debamos plantearnos la cuestión de sí en los casos en que el cumplimiento o ejecución del Derecho europeo corresponde a las Comunidades Autónomas, por ejemplo cuando a ellas les corresponde la incorporación a nuestro ordenamiento jurídico de las Directivas, no sería más respetuoso con la distribución de competencias que la previsión supletoria estatal entrase en vigor una vez expirase el plazo de transposición de las Directivas. Ello es lo que proponía el Consejo de Estado en  su Informe sobre las garantías del cumplimiento del Derecho Comunitario, de 15 de diciembre de 2010, que en relación con la entrada en vigor de una eventual normativa estatal supletoria, afirmaba, inspirándose en el Derecho italiano, que «podría diferirse la entrada en vigor o la aplicación temporal de la norma estatal supletoria al momento de finalizar el plazo de transposición o complemento, en el bien entendido de que su eficacia no se extiende al ámbito de las Comunidades Autónomas que, finalizado dicho plazo, hubiesen adoptado las medidas oportunas»[2].

Deferir la entrada en vigor de la norma estatal supletoria no supondría transformar un medio preventivo, destinado a evitar el incumplimiento, en un medioreactivo, cuyo objeto sea poner fin al incumplimiento, pues el incumplimiento no llegaría nunca a producirse. Sin embargo, deferir la entrada en vigor de la norma estatal supletoria evitaría su aplicación anticipada y supondría respetar la idea de que la norma europea tiene que ser ejecutada en primera instancia por el nivel territorial competente para hacerlo, y sólo en segunda instancia y en caso de incumplimiento, por el Estado.

Igualmente nada se dice en la STC 130/2013 del establecimiento de una eventual obligación del Estado de diferenciar en la norma dictada entre los preceptos supletorios y los preceptos básicos. Diferenciación que permitiría a las Comunidades Autónomas salvaguardar mejor sus competencias.


[1]El voto particular del Magistrado Ortega al que se adhieren otros 4 magistrados señala que “la Sentencia toma una doctrina sectorial, la de la STC 79/1992, de 28 de mayo, elaborada en relación con unas concretas ayudas en un específico sector económico, como la agricultura y ganadería, y la convierte en la doctrina general en la materia sin explicar sus relaciones, si las hay, con la doctrina de la supletoriedad del derecho estatal de las conocidas SSTC 118/1996, de 27 de junio, y 61/1997, de 20 de marzo”.

[2]Informe sobre las garantías del cumplimiento del Derecho Comunitario, de 15 de diciembre de 2010. p. 234.

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