[Corte cost. n. 27/2013] Le Regioni non possono limitare lo shopping domenicale

Vetrina

Con la sentenza n. 27 del 2013, la Corte costituzionale ha dichiarato l’incostituzionalità degli artt. 80 e 81, co. 1, della legge reg. Toscana 7 febbraio 2005, n. 28, così come sostituiti dagli artt. 88 e 89 della legge reg. Toscana 27 dicembre 2011, n. 66 (cioè la legge finanziaria per l’anno 2012). In particolare, la prima norma aveva introdotto nuovi limiti agli orari degli esercizi commerciali al dettaglio, sostanzialmente ripristinando l’obbligo di chiusura domenicale e festiva; la seconda, invece, aveva posto dei vincoli agli orari di apertura e di chiusura al pubblico degli esercizi di somministrazione di alimenti e bevande.

In prima battuta, giova evidenziare che l’art. 3, co. 1, lett. d-bis, del d.l. 4 luglio 2006, n. 223, così come recentemente modificato dal decreto “salva Italia” (d.l. 6 dicembre 2011, n. 201, convertito con modificazioni dalla l. 22 dicembre 2011, n. 214), dispone che, in virtù dei principi comunitari di concorrenza e di libera circolazione delle merci e dei servizi, nonché nel rispetto delle competenze trasversali statali di cui all’art. 117, co. 2, lett. e (tutela della concorrenza) ed m (determinazione dei livelli essenziali delle prestazioni concernenti i diritti civili e sociali), Cost., le attività commerciali inerenti la somministrazione di alimenti e bevande non possono incontrare limiti o prescrizioni relative “al rispetto degli orari di apertura e di chiusura”, all’“obbligo della chiusura domenicale e festiva”, nonché a “quello della mezza giornata di chiusura infrasettimanale dell’esercizio”.

In altri termini, sulla base della normativa in questione, tutti questi aspetti devono essere rimessi al libero apprezzamento dell’esercente.

Pare il caso di ricordare che il giudice delle leggi si era già recentemente pronunciato sull’argomento con la decisione n. 299 del 2012, quando erano venute in rilievo diverse impugnazioni regionali, tutte fondate sulla lamentata lesione dell’art. 117, co. 4, Cost., norma che, in via residuale, riserverebbe alle Regioni la competenza legislativa in materia di commercio. In quel caso, la Corte aveva sostenuto che, in virtù della vocazione “’dinamica’ della materia ‘tutela della concorrenza’, – ricomprendente le misure dirette a promuovere l’apertura di mercati o ad instaurare assetti concorrenziali, mediante la riduzione o l’eliminazione dei vincoli al libero esplicarsi della capacità imprenditoriale e alle modalità di esercizio delle attività economiche –, è consentito al legislatore statale intervenire anche nella disciplina degli orari degli esercizi commerciali”.

La ratio della normativa nazionale in esame risiede nel fatto che, rimuovendo ogni ostacolo relativo agli orari e ai giorni di apertura degli esercizi commerciali, il legislatore ha inteso favorire la creazione di un mercato maggiormente dinamico, ampliando le possibilità di scelta dei consumatori, oltre che le opportunità di ingresso di nuovi operatori. La misura introdotta dal decreto “salva Italia” risulta dunque coerente con l’obiettivo di promuovere la concorrenza.

Ciò comporta, come emerge dalla sentenza n. 27 del 2013, un palese contrasto tra ledisposizioni regionali impugnate e l’art. 3, co. 1, lett. d-bis, d.l. n. 223 del 2006 (così come recentemente novellato), che “ha liberalizzato gli orari e le giornate di apertura degli esercizi commerciali” e va ascritto alla competenza esclusiva dello Stato sulla tutela della concorrenza.

Pertanto, alla luce del quadro delineato, le Regioni non potranno più intervenire in senso restrittivo sulla disciplina degli orari degli esercizi commerciali al dettaglio, né su quella concernente gli orari degli esercizi di somministrazione di alimenti e bevande.

Alessandro Candido

Foto | Flickr.it

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