Il regionalismo visto da Luigi Mariucci

Prof. MariucciNell’ambito del ciclo d’incontri con autorevoli giuristi sul tema del regionalismo, pubblichiamo, questa settimana, un’intervista a Luigi Mariucci, professore ordinario di Diritto del lavoro presso l’Università Ca’ Foscari di Venezia.

Professore, a suo giudizio si può sostenere che la cultura dell’autonomia, in particolare dell’autonomia regionale, si sia veramente affermata tra gli studiosi e tra gli attori della politica e si sia diffusa nell’opinione pubblica?

La cultura autonomista ha antiche radici in Italia, ma essa riguarda essenzialmente la dimensione comunale date le risalenti tradizioni municipaliste con i loro difetti e le loro virtù. L’”autonomia regionale” è invece un concetto alquanto artefatto, in linea con il carattere sostanzialmente artificioso della esperienza regionale.

A parte la fase aurea del primo regionalismo (a cavallo degli anni 60-70), il regionalismo costituisce materia specialistica tra gli studiosi, diffusa in specie tra i costituzionalisti e i giuspubblicisti che hanno intrattenuto rapporti professionali con le regioni, e, più di recente, dopo la riforma del tit. V Cost. del 2001, tra alcuni giuslavoristi. In generale nella opinione pubblica prevale un mix di scarsa conoscenza (dato il cono d’ombra in cui vivono le regioni anche sul piano mediatico, a differenza dei comuni) e diffidenza, incrementata geometricamente a seguito dei recenti scandali che hanno riguardato in particolare le regioni. Analoga diffidenza e scarsa simpatia per l’istituto regionale si registra tradizionalmente tra i politici, a parte quelli che occupano pro-tempore cariche regionali: ma, guarda caso, quando i politici regionali accedono a cariche nazionali spesso si arruolano nella schiera degli antiregionalisti, a ragion veduta, a differenza di quanto accade per gli ex sindaci. Il punto di fondo sta nel sostanziale fallimento delle performance regionali, sia dopo la prima regionalizzazione sia, a maggior ragione, dopo la seconda e più forte regionalizzazione (elezione diretta dei presidenti regionali, autonomia statutaria dei Consigli regionali, riforma tit. V ecc.).

Che consigli darebbe, quanto ai temi da approfondire e al metodo da adottare, a chi, oggi, volesse avvicinarsi allo studio del regionalismo in Italia, della sua teoria e delle sue applicazioni?

Sconsiglierei ogni approccio astratto al tema regionalista. Più utili sono le indagini riferite a singole tematiche di governo: pianificazione territoriale, politiche ambientali, risorse idriche, gestione dei rifiuti, ecc.

Nella letteratura italiana e internazionale su autonomia, regionalismo e concetti affini, quali sono i classici la cui lettura lei ritiene fondamentale per chi voglia avvicinarsi allo studio del regionalismo?

Oltre ai classici, dai grandi federalisti americani (Hamilton, Madison ecc.) utile è la rassegna di Elazar (Milano, Comunità, 1995). Per l’Italia non si può prescindere naturalmente da Cattaneo, Luigi Sturzo, Salvemini. Un libro utile è “Il federalismo preso sul serio” (AAVV, Il Mulino, 1996) che contiene la migliore proposta (naturalmente non realizzata) in tema di riforma regionalista e/o federalista dello Stato, ispirata al modello tedesco. Tra le riviste specializzate si veda in particolare Le Regioni. Tra le riviste giuslavoriste la prima ad occuparsi del tema è stata Lavoro e diritto (n. 3 del 2001).

A cura di Anna Trojsi

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